Retrieved 22 July 2016.
There are many reasons why police officers can sometimes be excessively aggressive.
Presentation at Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association.
March 2020 There have been suggestions of institutionalised racism within the Portuguese police force, with activists claiming that discrimination is the deep-rooted cause of police brutality in Portugal.
However, this "bad apple paradigm" is considered by some to be an "easy way out".
Victims claimed they were tortured while being held at the Attica General Police Directorate and stated that police officers slapped them, spat on them, burnt their arms with cigarette lighters, and kept them awake with flashlights and lasers.
In 1998, occurred when a young basketball fan was killed by the police.
These include personality disorders; previous traumatic job-related experience; young, inexperienced, or authoritarian officers; officers who learn inappropriate patrol styles; and officers with personal problems.