Government snipers fired at rebels through arrow slits in walls.
While Syrians fight for their lives to escape the city once known as the cradle of civilisation, many photographers have stayed to ensure the world bares witness to the razing of Aleppo.
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One of the tactics used by rebels in the intense street fighting through the Old City's narrow alleyways was the detonation of mines, dug beneath army positions in tunnels.
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It was used as a barracks for Ottoman troops and more recently for soldiers during the French mandate.
It sustained heavy damage in the earthquake of 1822.
While the city, one of the oldest continuously habited in the world, was split into warring government and rebel sectors, the army retained control of the citadel even when it was surrounded by insurgents on three sides and could only be accessed by a tunnel.